Covering an area of 284 square kilometers， Tsukuba Science City is seated 60 kilometers to the northeast of Tokyo， with Mount Tsukuba to its north， Japan’s second largest lake， Lake Kasumigaura to its east， and an international airport 40 kilometers away. The city boasts of beautiful natural environment and convenient transportation completed with networks of highway and railway. Established in 1963 as part of the effort to promote the development of science and technology， the city， as an advanced center for research and higher education built based on national research institutions and Tsukuba University， not only helps ease the traffic pressure in Tokyo but also balance the development of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Home to 189，000 residents with 66，000 of them living at research and education district and the rest at surrounding suburbs， the science city aims to reached a population of 350，000 with 100，000 of them planned for research and education district and the rest of them for surrounding suburbs.
Figure 1: Tsukuba Science City
As a science research center in Japan， Tsukuba Science City is home to 46 national research and educational institutions， primarily covering areas in education， construction， science and engineering， biology and common use. These institutions are served by about 13，000 staff， 8，500 of them are research fellows. In the industrial parks inside the city and around the surrounding suburbs， there are a great number of private research institutions in fields ranging from medicines， electronics and electricals， mechanical engineering to construction， and about 4，500 research fellows work for these private institutions.
Figure 2: Transportation map of Tsukuba Science City
As Japanese government’s first try to build a science city， Tsukuba Science City， funded entirely by the government， is a research center at national level with basic scientific research as its focus. Since the end of the 1980s， 30% of Japan’s national institutions， 40% of the research fellows and 50% of the state’s budget for national research institutions have been drawn to Tsukuba Science City.
Tsukuba Science City is constructed in a way to ensure the coordination of all its functional areas， keep ecological balance， protect historical sites and guarantee a healthy and harmonious life for its residents. Its two areas， the research and education area， and the surrounding development area are built in consistent style which make sure they are in harmony with each other while keep their own characteristics at the same time. The research and education area is divided into different functional areas with every one of them coordinates and complements with each other to create friendly environment for private institutions and universities. Public facilities in the surrounding development area are firstly constructed to meet the needs of the research and education area.
As the core area of Tsukuba Science City, research and education area is located at the center of the city, covering an area of 27 square kilometers. As a well-planned area which gathers multiple national research and educational institutions, the area is completed with public service area, residential area and various parks, and is equipped with advanced infrastructure, shopping malls, libraries, museums and so on.
Figure 3: facilities distribution in Tsukuba Science City